Posted by Rob LeFebvre on October 12th, 2012 iPad Only App - Designed for iPad
Those Bad Piggies are at it again, this time with a pan-load full of delicious egg recipes. It’s like they’re rubbing it in those Angry Birds’ faces. So rude. I bet the Piggies are just laughing.
– 41 delicious egg recipes
– Animated illustrations that brings the birds and pigs to life
– Step-by-step photo instructions
– Funny and surprising photos of the finished recipes (those piggies are at it again!)
– Social media integration and built-in album to share photos of your creations
– Real egg timer built into the app
– Full index for quick and easy access to your favorite recipes
– Easy virtual bookmarks for your favorite recipes
– Option to switch between metric and imperial units
Angry Birds have created a new Tumblr page to announce some sort of a Star Wars tie in. Could be a Star Wars level in Angry Birds: Space or could be a while new game. We will hopefully find out on October 8th, when the announcement is scheduled to go up.
Posted by Jeff Scott on September 27th, 2012 iPhone App - Designed for iPhone, compatible with iPad
Can games, like television shows, have spin-offs? I guess so. Bad Piggies from Rovio is now available for both iPhone / iPod touch and iPad. It’s a physics puzzle game, similar to a mash up of Angry Birds and Amazing Alex. We’ll have a full review up soon. Until then, here’s a gameplay preview:
Posted by Jeff Scott on August 23rd, 2012 iPhone App - Designed for iPhone, compatible with iPad
Angry Birds Space got a big update today adding a new level, the red planet, to honor the NASA Curiosity rover.
“We’re huge NASA fans, and we were all cheering the Mars Curiosity rover as it touched down,” said Peter Vesterbacka, chief marketing officer of Rovio Entertainment. “So, working together on the Mars update was a perfect fit, especially since we got such an amazing response to our previous collaboration, the ‘Angry Birds Space: NASA announcement’ video, which quickly surged to the top of 2012’s viral video charts. We’re thrilled to continue working with NASA. Stay tuned for even more great fun and educational content coming up.”
Update 5/11: In an interview on Finnish YLE TV this morning, Rovio CEO Mikael Hed talked a bit about Rovio’s next game, based on Casey’s Contraptions IP. The game will be called Amazing Alex and will be released in July of this year. Casey has been renamed Alex yet remains a curious young boy who loves to build things.
We mentioned yesterday that we believed that Rovio had bought the rights to Casey’s Contraptions. While neither the original developer or Rovio could confirm it yesterday, today we have gotten official word from Rovio that this was indeed the case.
Rovio’s VP of Franchise Development, Ville Heijari commented on our story from yesterday “We can confirm that we have acquired all rights to Casey’s Contraptions IP from Snappy Touch and Mystery Coconut. We are currently reworking the title to enhance it, and getting ready to re-introduce it in a true “expect the unexpected” Rovio style launch to an even larger audience”.
Ville further commented on what makes Casey’s Contraptions a perfect fit for the Rovio brand. “Working with Noel and Miguel has been fantastic, and this is a game that we all fell in love with from the first play. The gameplay is a perfect fit in our arsenal with its approachable, fun and highly addictive take on the physics puzzler genre.”
We also asked Noel Llopis, the developer half of the games creators and the face behind Snappy Touch how this deal happened. He commented “We didn’t create Casey’s Contraptions with any thoughts of ever selling it. We just concentrated on making the best game we could and infuse it with as much personality as possible. The fact that Rovio came along and wanted to buy it was a happy accident that happened along the way. We’re really excited to see it get a second chance and to have it reach a much larger audience than we could have ever dreamed of.”
It will be interesting to see what changes Rovio makes to the excellent game. Will they keep the innovative sharing features (in Casey’s Contraptions, you could share your solutions, many times very unique, with other players)? Will the art style change? Will it be simplified or more complex? What about crossovers — will we see Angry Birds show up in the game? All questions we’ll have to wait to find out. As the game gets closer to release, we will undoubtedly find out more.
Expect Rovio to release the game for iOS and Android this summer, with other platforms to follow after that.
And now that Casey’s Contraptions in the capable hands of Rovio, what’s next for Snappy Touch? Again, Noel comments “I’m working on my games full time. I haven’t decided what my next game will be yet. I do know that it will be focused primarily on creativity and player expression, just like Casey’s Contraptions or Flower Garden. At the same time, it will be quite different from those games. That seems to be a theme with me so far: After doing one game, even if it’s successful, there’s a lot less creative challenge to make something very similar, so I rather move on and explore something different.”
For a look back at what was, here’s the excellent gameplay trailer from the original Casey’s Contraptions. Now that the game has been removed from the store, it will have to do to hold you over.
We’ll let you know as soon as we find out more about this, the next game from Rovio.
Nickelodeon has released an update to popular bow-shooting adventure, Monkey Quest: Thunderbow. The update includes new levels, modes, items and more.
The update added 30 news levels with new puzzle types, bouncy bomb levels, and armadillo levels. In addition to these free new levels, three more modes of gameplay were added. The game now includes survival mode, dig mode, and mayhem mode. And now the monkey has four more MMO items to unlock including the heavy metal bow, heavy metal hair helmet, heavy metal quiver, and the Anubis staff.
Monkey Quest: Thunderbow is a physics-based bow shooting game that has elements of both popular Angry Birds and Worms. The monkey shoots a magical bow and arrow in various levels that has the thunderous power to destroy the environment of the levels themselves. Monkey Quest: Thunderbow comes in both free and paid versions for the iPhone as well as free and paid HD versions for the iPad. Check out the video below with gameplay features of the new update.
Only a month after its release, Rovio has released its first update to Angry Birds title, Angry Birds Space. This new update includes levels and Space Eagles for everyone!
The game now has ten new levels set on icy planets. In addition to the free new levels, all iOS players will be receiving free Space Eagles. These avians are a bit different from the Eagle in the previous Angry Birds games. Instead of destroying all pigs on a level, the Space Eagle creates a large explosion in a set area of a level. While still incredibly powerful, it doesn’t instantly finish a level for players. Now all updated iOS players will receive twenty of the mighty birds. Also, each daily login will grant one free Space Eagle for players.
Angry Birds Space puts a new spin on the popular phyiscs-based sling-shot game. The birds are now flinging themselves at pigs in a zero gravity atmosphere. These new, slow-motion puzzles with competing gravity from various planets puts a new spin on the familiar Angry Birds gameplay.
Everyone always wonders why those birds are so angry. Also, how could the pigs get those eggs, anyway? These birds are capable enough to build catapults and master gravity to rescue their eggs. Well, The Hungry Pigs surmises that what the pigs lack in intelligence, they make up in the ability to make their way through perilously-configured mazes.
Yes, this platformer is a reverse Angry Birds – controlling rolling pigs in order to steal eggs. The pigs come with various abilities, such as flight, and bursting through structures, activated by tapping on the screen, with the accelerometer used to roll them around. Any impact causes them to weaken, and some of those birds are around to try and defend their eggs from those nefarious pigs.
What The Hungry Pigs tells is why they suddenly decided to change tactics. The “standing still in structures that can be destroyed by birds” strategy was clearly not working, and their strategy in this one is going to be a whole lot better.
Seriously, there are a TON of games for the iOS platform. But when I mention the iPad or the iPhone as a true gaming platform, all I get are responses like, “Only good for Angry Birds!” Come on, gamers, open up those minds.
The iPad won’t replace home consoles any time soon, of course, but I really think that as portable devices get more and more powerful, those living room devices are going to have to up the ante to continue to be relevant. If I’m able to play a game with the graphics of Infinity Blade II and the deeper gameplay of something like Escape Plan (PlayStation Vita) on the big screen via AirPlay, why would I need a console?
I firmly believe that the iPad and iOS in general is already well on its way to replacing dedicated handheld gaming devices, at least.
I’ve owned Sony’s handheld gaming devices since the original PSP. I turned in all some dusty handhelds the other day and bought a Vita with the proceeds. Escape Plan, a fantastic launch title is a perfect fit for the iOS platform. While playing it, all I can think about is how a game of its obvious quality would work totally well on an iPhone. Or, better yet, an iPad. 148Apps creator and owner, Jeff Scott, agreed, saying, “But I keep thinking — hey, you could make a game this good on iOS, why don’t you?”
The iPad has the same graphics chip as the PS Vita. Escape Plan is made in Unity. Hey, the iPad supports games made in Unity! Why aren’t more developers jumping over to iOS?
not the only disgruntled ones
Could it be the perception out there, shared by many gamers, that iOS is just a platform for Angry Birds? First of all, any developer would be LUCKY to “just” be Angry Birds, with their 10m downloads for Angry Birds Space alone. A developer who might like to be able to charge $15 for the 1.4m PS Vitas out there needs to simply do the math and see that they could do as well on iOS at a much less expensive price point.
But the perception remains that iOS is simply a causal gaming platform, just one step up from the feature phones of the past. I disagree, of course, with titles like Gem Keeper, Trenches II, Hunters 2, Infinity Blade Dungeons (upcoming), and a ton of really good role playing games available for the platform. That’s not even to mention the bigger ports of console games, like Dead Space and Mirror’s Edge. Just because more casual games are in the media spotlight does NOT by any means that deeper, fully-gamer-approved experiences are not possible.
I think it’s time we change this perception. How? By bringing games with the depth and quality of an Escape Plan or Little Deviants or Wipeout to the iOS platform.
So I call out to all you Vita developers – why aren’t you on iOS? Is it a licensing issue? A Sony support issue? Why isn’t Escape Plan on my iPad? I’m begging, here. So are a ton of other gaming consumers. Why not come and engage the market?
I reached out to the developers of Escape Plan, FunBits, in an email last week, and haven’t heard back. If you know anyone at Funbits, or actually work there, drop me a line. I’d love to chat with you. Or anyone else engaged in the handheld/console market that isn’t already developing for iOS.
YMG Enterprises has just released Occupiers Revenge, an Angry Birds-like game with a social and political twist. Apparently the “birds” are the ‘revolutionary 99%’ taking back the money stolen from us by the evil bankers of the world.
As members of the Occupy Movement, players will work their way through levels of flinging the lower and middle classes at the evil bankers while racking up stars and points for each level. And while the developers seem to take the Occupy Movement seriously, this is a great way to lighten the mood and take out your frustrations on bankers standing in for the pigs.
And if the players happen to learn something about the current economic situation and the Occupy Movement, even better. Each time a player beats a level, they’re presented with facts about the Occupy Movement.
So take out some frustration and maybe learn a thing or two. Occupiers Revenge is available for just $0.99.
This week at 148Apps.com, writer Jennifer Allen launched her review of Angry Birds Space, saying, “There’s a temptation to declare that Angry Birds Space is more of the same. That wouldn’t be a bad thing by any means. While there’s no doubt that marketing has played a big role in its success, Angry Birds is still one of the best casual gaming experiences out there. It benefits greatly from that “just one more go” mentality and a lot can be achieved in a short amount of time. Angry Birds Space ups the ante in that respect by introducing a sufficient number of new features to ensure that it’s not just more of the same, while still retaining the original game’s charm.”
iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad
Released: 2012-03-22 :: Category: Games
Amy Solomon, at GiggleApps.com, also wrote about birds this week, but these took the form of her review of Draw and Tell HD by Duck Duck Moose. Solomon writes, “Draw and Tell HD – by Duck Duck Moose is a creative and fun art app that allows young artists to record personal narration to their finished pieces, including a multitude of art supplies to work with. Both iPad as well as iPhone versions are available.
Children have a choice of expressing themselves by choosing a blank page to begin their art work or choosing a coloring page to work on. Another wonderful function of this app is the ability to choose a photo from the device’s camera roll to use as a background as well.
iPad Only App - Designed for the iPad
Released: 2012-02-29 :: Category: Education
Finally, 148Apps.biz featured a report by Kevin Stout about the astonishing growth of iOS and Android activations in China. Stout writes, “China has recently become the leader in new iOS and Android device adoption (phones and tablets). It’s also finished the year in 2nd for application sessions, only behind the U.S. Specifically, China’s app session growth between last year and this year is 1126%. That’s nearly double the closest country (Argentina).”
And that’s the week that was. Join us next week for a full recap of the activities across the 148apps-verse. Until then, keep track of our latest contests, news items and reviews by following us on Twitter and liking us on Facebook. See ya!
The day after we learned that Zynga has purchased OMGPOP, the developers of Draw Something, we are reminded what a real franchise on the App Store is. Angry Birds with it’s 600+ million users is expanding.
Angry Birds Space is now available on just about everything with a screen. This of course includes iOS devices both large and small. Angry Birds Space is available now for $0.99 [App Store] and $2.99 for the iPad [App Store] version. Both versions includes 60 levels in the initial release. For a quick round-up of Angry Birds Space, see the post from Carter on the game from yesterday.
Talking yesterday with Peter Vesterbacka, CMO of Rovio, we can expect to see regular updates to Angry Birds Space over the coming months — much as we have seen with the other Angry Birds games.
We also learned from Peter today that we can expect four additional Angry Birds games this year. Rovio will also be launching a brand new franchise this year, separate from the Angry Birds brand. Something to look forward to!
We’ll be posting our review of Angry Birds Space in the morning. But we’re guessing if you are Angry Birds fans, you won’t wait for our word on the game.
The latest version of Angry Birds will be displayed to public for the first time at the South by South West Interactive conference being held in Austin, Texas. Even before the first demo, details about the upcoming game have been released.
The newest Angry Birds game will be titled Angry Birds Space, and as the name implies, the game is space themed. The biggest space themed addition will be zero gravity levels that should add an interesting twist to the game play.
Rovio, the developers behind the popular franchise, has even partnered with NASA. Don Pettit, who is an astronaut aboard the international space station, will introduce the game. Pettit has already made a video talking about some of the physics in the game. NASA hopes that the game will encourage children to learn more about physics and inspire them to pursue careers in technology and science fields.
The app will be released on March 22 for the iPhone, iPad, Android platform, PC, and Mac. Other platforms will be receiving the app too, but at an undisclosed later time. At the South by South West Interactive conference the game will be demoed on a Samsung Galaxy Note, since Rovio has a partnership with Samsung. The launch of the app will occur in tandem with the launch a slew of Angry Birds Space themed merchandise.
Angry Birds Space will have 60 levels at launch, with more levels available later for free or as in-app purchases. The game will also include 6 new birds and super-powers. The app will be launched with an unprecedented amount of other Angry Birds themed merchandise, such as toys, books, and candy. Rovio is even working with National Geographic to publish an Angry Birds Space book. According to Rovio, it has licensed their characters for more than 20,00 products and has sold over 25 million Angry Birds toys.
Bird flingers have a month to get their space-gear ready because Rovio just announced the next Angry Birds game is blasting off on March 22 for the final frontier. Rovio has been teasing press and fans alike with a vague note on their blog saying the 4th game in the franchise, Angry Birds Space, is “a completely new game with innovative new gameplay, but with some of the familiar Angry Birds elements that fans already know and love — plus some surprises! “
The blogsphere is awash with best guesses, including that aliens, not pigs will be the enemy and that gravity will (or won’t) play into the physics. The only non-speculative information comes from VentureBeat. They report that the new game based on uber-hit Angry Birds – which passed 700 million downloads recently and launched last week on Facebook – “will have numerous new characters and players can expect the science part of the game to be physically accurate … On top of launching birds at pigs in zero gravity, the game will have a variety of other gameplay elements, including slow-motion, lightspeed destruction.”
Rovio put out a teaser with a menacing space-faring cardinal and promises more information in early March. It’s a safe bet that this will be even bigger that the Angry Birds Rio movie tie-in from last year, or anything we’ve seen from the Finnish game company so far. We’ll keep you posted as details land here on Earth.
Happy Holidays! If you’re like many folks, you’ll have gotten a new iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch this holiday season. And if you’re looking for a place to learn all about this new magical device in your life, you’ve come to the right place. 148Apps has tons of resources on using your new device and filling it with the best thing about it: apps.
Learning The Basics
The operating system of these devices is one of the most intuitive around. However, there’s always more waiting under the hood to make things just that much easier or better on us. While your new iPhone or iPad may not come with a manual, you can download one fairly simply from the iBooks Store. First, grab ”iBooks” (FREE!, + Universal App), then grab the manual for your new iPad, iPhone, or iPod touch.
Speaking of the operating system, we’ve written a few articles about the latest and greatest from Cupertino right here on 148Apps. Check out our Full Feature Roundup on iOS 5.
We even published some downloadable magazine-style User Guides last year, on each of the devices. Feel free to grab them and read through them – many of the tips and tricks included there are just as relevant today as they were then. iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad.
To the iCloud!!!
You may have seen some of the information about iCloud in the Apple TV commercials. It’s a great system that gives you unprecedented storage and sharing options. Here’s a short intro to iCloud from Apple.
We’ve got you covered with iCloud as well. Here’s information on both moving your data to the iCloud to help keep things synced and backed up. You may also need more information on how you set up iCloud in a multiple user family. This details all the ins and outs of multiple user groups who may otherwise share iTunes accounts.
There Really is an App for That
Once you’ve got a good handle on using that sleek new iOS device, you’ll of course want to dive in and start downloading apps. Whether you’re an avid gamer, a music lover, a book reader or even (gasp) all three, you’ll find everything you need in the iTunes Store.
When it comes to Apps, iOS has no peer. There are over 500,000 apps in the App Store, so you’ll doubtlessly find something you like. The trick, however, is filtering through all of those apps to find the specific things you want. That can be tricky, but luckily there are many ways to help.
First off are our very own reviews. We review a ton of apps weekly to give you the best recommendations about the best apps we find. Be sure to look through our Reviews lists, which can be filtered by type of app as well as sorted by date, app name, or app rating. If you just want to read reviews of our highest rated iPad games, for example, it’s an easy click. And for on the go browsing of 148Apps reviews, grab the ”148Apps App” (FREE!, iPhone App).
In addition, we have our famous Price Drops lists, which can be sorted to just show the latest drops in prices, or even just the latest FREE apps. Very handy, if we say so ourselves. If you’re looking for the very latest additions to the App Store, we have a list for that, as well as one for the Top Apps across all the App Store categories for each device. Then of course there’s always the very best of the best in free apps available in the free games and free apps lists.
If you want even more app discovering goodness, you might want to check out a few apps made to help you wade through the App Store. Some of our favorites are ”AppShopper” (FREE!, + Universal App), ”Chomp” (FREE!, iPhone App), and ”AppZapp” (FREE!, iPhone App). There are even specific apps to help you find the latest free apps. Some of the best include ”Free App A Day” (FREE!, iPhone App), ”Apps Gone Free” (FREE!, + Universal App), and “Free App Alliance” (FREE!, iPhone App). These will all help you sort and find and browse apps and games to your heart’s content; we use them all the time to find new great apps to use and write about on the site.
Where Else To Find 148Apps?
We’re everywhere, really. However, the best places to find us are on Twitter, Facebook, and now even Google+. Be sure to come visit and chat with us there. We’re ever so responsive.
Free Apps You Shouldn’t Do Without
Now, we wouldn’t be the premier Apps review site without some sort of parting gift, now would we? How about some apps you really should try out? To make the deal even sweeter, let’s make them free apps.
iBooks, Nook, & Kindle – Reading ebooks is all the rage these days, especially on these fancy new iOS devices. We love reading on our iPad, and have even been known to crack a virtual spine or two on our iPhone while waiting at the doctor’s office. For those of you with shorter attention spans, there’s always Newsstand, iOS’s magazine subscription service. Some of the best ereader apps include ”iBooks” (FREE!, + Universal App), ”Nook for iPhone” (FREE!, + Universal App), ”Nook for iPad” (FREE!, + Universal App), and ”Kindle” (FREE!, + Universal App). Happy reading!
Facebook, Twitter, & Instant Messaging – Keep in touch with family, friends, and us – your favorite Apps website – with these free social networking apps. Tell ‘em 148Apps sent you!
There’s Facebook (FREE!, + Universal App), Twitter (FREE!, + Universal App) though ”Tweetbot” ($4.99, iPhone App) is much better, though not free like the official Twitter app.
For instant messaging, check out ”imo” (FREE!, + Universal App) and ”imo for iPad” (FREE!, iPad App). And don’t forget ”Skype” (FREE!, iPhone App) and ”Skype for iPad” (FREE!, iPad App). We’ve become big fans of ”GroupMe” (FREE!, + Universal App) lately too for group communication.
Gaming on the Cheap – Now, we put out a sweet weekly article that tells you about the latest FREE gaming apps, but here are a few we think you won’t want to miss. We could go on for hours about it, really, but these should get you off to a good start.
For a great free endless runner, check out ”Temple Run” (FREE!, + Universal App). A wonderful game. For some great physics puzzle fun, the new king is ”Where’s My Water? Free” (FREE!, + Universal App) and you can never go wrong with the classic ”Angry Birds Free” (FREE!, iPhone App). A couple other free games we really like include ”The Sims Freeplay” (FREE!, + Universal App) and ”TinyTower” (FREE!, + Universal App).
You should also check out our massive iOS game and app sale post. There are tons of great deals and quite a few temporarily free apps there. Be sure to grab the great ”Jetpack Joyride” (FREE!, + Universal App) while it’s free. It’s one of our favorite games of the year.
We hope you’ve enjoyed learning about your new magical iOS devices. The iPad, iPhone and iPod touch are some of the best new gadgets to give or receive. Be sure to come back often to see what we have for you; we’re always looking to find the news or apps you want to know about first. From all of us here to all of you out there, Happy Holidays!!!
Those oh-so popular Angry Birds would have players believe that they are crusaders for justice, trying to reclaim their precious eggs from those nasty, hungry pigs. However, we now have proof that the whole story is more complicated than that. Every tale has two sides and with the release of Misunderstood Pigs for iPhones and iPads the porcine perspective on this avian affair has been uncovered for all to see.
A group of harmless pigs and their families are suffering from constant projectile bird attacks. The player’s job is to build structures around the pigs to protect them. Players must set up boxes, planks, pieces of glass and whatever else it takes to repel the invaders and get bigger scores. The game also includes a level editor so players can construct pig saving scenarios of their own.
Given how important it is for everyone to realize the truth, Misunderstood Pigs should be able to be played by as many people as possible. Luckily, it is a universal app and is available now for free.
It’s quite astonishing to think that two years has passed since the release of a little game about throwing birds at pigs. Yup, it’s Angry Birds‘s second birthday!
The biggest gaming success story on the app store is celebrating such exciting times with the release of 15 brand new levels full of birthday cakes and celebratory balloons. Very appropriate given developers, Rovio’s history of regularly updating the title.
Included within this update is the new Orange Bird that propels any object it touches plus special birthday achievements.
Co-founder and co-general manager at Chillingo, Chris Byatte, sums up the magnitude of the game best: “After two years, Angry Birds continues to delight fans and remain a steady fixture on the App Store’s top ten charts .This is quite a testament to the success indie developers can achieve with the right title, publishing partner and promotional support.”
Check out the screenshots below while downloading the update. It’s available now for iPhone and iPad owners.
Everybody’s favorite iOS game, Angry Birds has taken note that it’s Halloween (or Ham’O’Ween as they like to call it) this coming Monday and in honor of such a great ocassion, Angry Birds Seasons has been updated to include 30 new levels, a bunch of new achievements and an all new orange bird! Very exciting stuff indeed.
The new levels need no introduction really. We all know and love the tried and tested formula of what to expect from the game. This time round, they’re Halloween themed with pumpkin patches, creepy skeletons and jack-o-lanterns out to heighten the mood. How about the new bird though? Well, he’s orange and unfortunately he doesn’t appear to have a name. Poor little bird. However, he does have the ability to blow up to several times his original size. That has to be useful for something.
Rovio has decided to introduce the cute yet dangerous bird via a really quite funny cartoon. Check it out below while downloading the update that’s available now.
Recently released on the App Store for iOS devices is Castle Clout. At a special introductory price it offers the chance to travel back in time to a medieval battlefield with gameplay being focused on smashing through 150 levels.
Users control a catapult as they must topple their enemies and destroy the strongholds with a variety of weapons such as the traditional boulder, bombs and even the plague.
Two control methods are possible with typical tap based controls or precision based directional aiming on offer. Getting just the right angle is vital in order to maximise the damage unleashed. Besides the 150 levels, a level creator is included ensuring that players can have fun creating their own stages using different wall materials and characters. Plus it means a plentiful supply of user created levels to tackle.
Think of it as a medieval Angry Birds but without the pesky birds getting in the way with their cuteness.
It’s out now priced at $0.99 for the iPhone version or $1.99 for the iPad equivalent.
Toyze, the 3D marketplace app by Eligo Games, has signed a licensing agreement with Game Insight to offer fans the chance to own 3D figures from three of their properties: Tribez, Dragon Eternity, and Mirrors of Albion. “Game Insight is one of the most successful players in the international mobile gaming industry and we are thrilled to […]